Abstract Title | Radiation Incidents and accidents during Radiopharmaceutcals production by cyclotron


  1. Salman Miliebari
  2. Mosab balkheir


Radiation Protection & Safety


I=-one,Wadi Jeddah. King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah


Based on cyclotron radiation safety, operation, maintennce, repair and facility design for more than thirty five years (35), here is a glance about possible incidents or accidents during radiopharmaceuticals production by cyclotron.

For continuous uninterrupted operation and production, High vacuum should maintain, de-ionized cooling water with high quality, operational air pressure maintained, stable main power supply, different room and area pressure maintained, and staff should be well knowledgeable and trained.

Summary of Work

Incidents due to not following regulations

  • Production of unlicenced isotope
  • Production more than licemced quantity

Before production Start

  • Water leak in any line, prevent operation of some equipment or lead to more problems
  • Air line leaks or got loose, we can’t start production because it may prevent operation of some component or lead to more problem
  • Improper air pressure, mechanical valves or drives may not work properly
  • Improper cooling water temperature, interlocks should stop operation
  • Improper room pressure, interlock should prevent operation to Prevent radioactivity spread.

During Production

  • Water leak, lead to lack of cooling or improper current reading
  • Air leak, prevent mechanical valves and drives from operation
  • Cooling water temperature rise, lead to seal failure or rupture
  •  Target leak, due to over heating or formation of hotspot lead to radioactivity spread.
  • Target foil rupture, lead to radioactivity spread.
  • Adhering to good preventing maintenance reduce the above failures.

During Transfer to hot lab

  • Air pressure failure
  • Possible mechanical failure

In hot lab

  • During processing spill can happen but proper working air handling system make it not a big concern.
  • Improper vial crimping may lead to leak.
  • During autoclaving improper crimping lead to radioactivity leak which expose staff at autoclave opening.


  • Using radiopharmaceuticals wrong label or quantity or customer address.
  • using uncertified transport vehicles.
  • Using uncertified drive.



  • Using genuine parts and high-quality supplies and consumables from known supplier, reduce failure
  • Adhere to local regulation or international regulations and guidelines reduce failure.
  • Adhere to maintenance management system and documentation reduce failure.
  • Having a good quality management system give management more positive involvement in work process

Most of the information based on my experience at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center-Riyad.

One of the incident refered to my experience at I-one Center , Wady Jeddah. King AbdulAziz University- Jeddah 

Summary of Work
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