Abstract Title
The role of lectures during the first year of a graduate entry problem based medical course


Remigio Zvauya
Paul Orsmond


3BB The lecture and the flipped classroom


Birmingham University - United Kingdom
Staffordshire University - United Kingdom,

  • Birmingham University admits 40 life science graduates  on a problem based medical course
  • Few lectures delivered on the course  with PBL and self directed as main instruction methods
  • Purpopse of lecture is either to introduce new topic (introductory) or to cover difficult concepts
  • Learning  and teaching each week is thematic and intergrated
Summary of Work
  • Qualitative longitudinal study during first year
  • Two focus  groups of five and six students
  • Data collected at two, seventeen and twenty three weeks
  • Data  anomymised, transcribed and analysed independently by two researchers
  • Student participation voluntary and the right to withdraw at any stage emphasisized
  • We acknowledge the students who participated in this study.

Fyrenius A, Bergdahl B, Silen C.  Lectures in problem based learning-Why, when and how? An example of inteactive lecturing that stimulates meaningful learning. Medical Teacher, 2005;27: 61-65

Malik AS, Malik HR. Twelve tips for effective lecturing in a PBL curriculum. Medical Teacher,2012;34:198-204

Azer S.  What makes a great lecture? Use of lectures in a hybrid PBL curriculum. Kaohsiung Medical Sciences, 2009;25 (3);109-115

Delva MD, Woodhouse AR, Hains S,Birtwhistle VR, Knapper C, Kirby RJ. Does PBL matter?Relations beween instructional context,learning strategies and learning outcomes. Advances in Health Science Education,2000;5:167-177

Summary of Results
  • Students preferred lectures to come after doing PBL or some self directed learning on the topic
  • Lectures  seen as useful guideline of what to cover and  starting off point for learning
  • Students valued the non science lectures more  as this was often a completely new subject area
  • At 17 weeks students  were starting to critique the content of lectures
  • At 23 weeks students wanted to lectures session to be inteactive
  • By end of year students used lectures to confirm their knowledge and felt there could share their it with lecturers
  • Students viewed lectures as time consuming  with other forms of learning such as  PBL, Self Directed Learning, Clinical Placement, Peer learning etc being seen as more efficient

Examplar quatations

S1at 2 weeks:'--The lectures are more interactive here than in my experience back in my old degree--- but people aren’t afraid to stop the lecturer and ask a question, or the lecturer will stop and ask questions of the audience--.'

S2 at 2 weeks: '-- I find some kinds of lectures here just give an outline of what you need to know, so you don’t go into the detail, you know, ‘so this is the principle and these are the salient points.'

 S3 at 23 weeks: --'With me lectures are the lecturers and I always have to start from kind of PBL basics again to go through what the lecturer is actually trying to get---- sometimes I feel like that 'the lecturer' like cherry picks some of the things, examples, but I want to know the basics first.'

S1 at 23 weeks: '-- the relationship’s [with lecturers] different because we’ve read about it in our own time and read textbooks and then you come to the lecture and they’re, you know, it is much more a kind of equal meeting rather than if you’re an undergraduate and you’re just being told something for the first time--'

S4 at 23 weeks: '--And people [in the lecture]will say ‘well, I’ve read a paper that says what you’ve said but then says this; is that right? What’s your opinion on this?’, so you are kind of sharing the knowledge with the lecturer and you kind of integrate in it I suppose with their knowledge as well.'

  • Students use lectures as to reassure themselves  that  their learning has both breadth and depth
  • Lectures are seen as an inefficient method of learning  with other learning methods such as PBL, peer teaching and clinical being viewed as more efficient
  • As the year progresses student feel confident about their abilities to understand concepts on their own and the lecture becomes a platform for sharing knowledge with lecturer
  • Within a very short period (<17 weeks) students begin to critique lectures
Take-home Messages
  • Students valued the few lectures  delivered on a PBL course but their role was seen as reassuring students that the are covering material at the right breadth and depth.
  • Within a short period students were confident of their ability to cover material independently using resources available and had developed skills to critique the lectures and to share knowledge with the lecturer
Summary of Work
Summary of Results
Take-home Messages
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