Abstract Title | Towards a translational paradigm for outcomes-based medical education research


  1. Charmaine Krishnasamy
  2. Issac Lim
  3. Wee-Shiong Lim


2II Evaluation of teaching/Educational research


Geriatric Medicine, Tan Tock Seng Hospital
Institute of Geriatrics and Active Aging
Health Outcomes and Medical Education Research, National Healthcare Group


Outcomes-based medical education research (MER) should aspire to translate research from bench to bedside. McGaghie (2010) adapted the biomedical framework of translational science to simulation research: basic sciences controlled educational setting discoveries (T1); research in patient care settings (T2); and improved patient care practices and outcomes (T3). 

We propose a modification of the McGaghie framework to include in the T1 phase non-experimental studies without clearcut outcomes, yet are important in broadening the evidence base to inform T2/T3 translation.

Study Objective:

To determine the feasibility of the modified McGaghie framework in classifying MER abstracts.  


Summary of Work

Modified McGaghie Classifcation
  Description Kirkpatrick's outcomes
T0 No outcomes, descriptive design with no conceptual framework  n.a.
T0a No learner outcomes, other outputs present  n.a.
T1a Educational seting, learner outcomes present  K1, K2
T1b Educational setting, other non-Kirkpatrick outcomes present  n.a.
T1c No learner outcomes, broaden scientific base via qualitative, observational, translational or psychometric study designs   n.a.
T2 Patient care practices, process outcomes  K3, K4a
T3 Patient care outcomes  K4b


Supported by NHG-HOMER/FY13/A14 grant

Other co-investigators/collaborators: Charlotte Ringsted, Wei-Chin Wong, Han-Yee Neo, Yu-Han Ong. 

Take-home Messages

The modified McGaghie framework provides a viable translational paradigm to classify outcomes-based MER. We should encourage more foundational "basic science" T1 research  that paves the way for T2 and T3 research.


Summary of Results




The overwhelming majority of studies are in T1 phase; only 1% are classified as T2/T3. 

A significant proportion of studies with non-Kirkpatrick's outcomes (T1b) and without clearly defined outcomes (T1c) contribute meaningfully to the evidence base of outcomes-based MER.

The prediction of clarification research purpose affirms the validity of the modfied McGaghie classfication 


WC McGaghie. Medical education research as translational science. Sci Transl Med 2010;2:19cm8

Cook DA, Bordage G, Schmidt HG. Description, justification and clarification: a framework for classifying the purposes of research in medical education. Med Educ 2008;42:128–33. 

Summary of Work
Take-home Messages
Summary of Results

Send ePoster Link